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Extant Saxon Clothing

Extant Finds
  • Tuesday, April 29 2008 @ 11:48 AM UTC
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Extant Saxon Clothing

By Jennifer Baker
Hodegon - New Varangian Guard
April 2008

Note: I have only listed clothing items found to be in /or close by to Germany

Iron Age to Early Medieval
Iron Age (c700 BC-43 AD)
The Roman occupation (43 AD-c410)
The 'Dark Ages' and the Anglo-Saxons (c410-1066)
Early Anglo-Saxon (450-650)
Middle Anglo-Saxon (650-800)
Total Number of
Tunics - 7
Skirts - 2
Cloaks - 27
Leg wear - Trousers - 6
Leg wear - Leg wraps - 5
Footwear - shoes - 9
Headwear - hats - 7
Headwear - hoods - 2
Other items - 5
Bronze, Iron Age to Early Medieval
Location Items Name / Cat No. Description Date
Tunics
Thorsberg Germany   Tunic
The primary material is wool
Description:
around the 2-5th centuries
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
Tunic
The primary material is wool
Description: a sleeved tunic,
Associated object(s): a stick, two woollen cloaks, leg wrappings, a sleeved tunic, two leather belts and a leather knife sheath
The calibrated age range is cal AD 680-775
Marx-Stapelstein Germany
Findspot: Hilgenmoor, Landkreis Wittmund
Marx-Stapelstein (1861) remains of several woollen garments The calibrated age range is cal AD 135-385.
Marx-Etzel Germany
Findspot: Hilgenmoor, Landkreis Wittmund
Marx-Etzel (1817) Tunic
The primary material is wool
Description: a sleeveless woollen tunic,
The calibrated age range is cal AD 45-125.
Marx-Etzel Germany
Findspot: Hilgenmoor, Landkreis Wittmund
Marx-Etzel (1817) remains of a third woollen garment The calibrated age range is cal AD 45-125.
Obenaltendorf Germany
Findspot: Kehdinger Moor, Landkreis Cuxhaven
Oberaltendorf Man (1895)
(inv. No. 930)
Tunic
The primary material is wool
Description:
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a tunic, a pair of breeches, leg wrappings, shoes and two silver Kapselberlocks
The calibrated date is cal AD 260-380,
Dätgen Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Da¨tgen (1906)
(inv. No. KS 11919)
Tunic
The primary material is wool
Description: woollen tunic
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen knee-length breeches and the remains of a woollen tunic and several other garments/accessories
The calibrated date is cal AD 345-535.
Skirts
Damendorf Ruchmoor Germany
Findspot: Ruchmoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Girl (1934)
(inv. No. KS 22412)
Skirt
The primary material is wool
Description: short skirt, 1934 find
Associated objects: short woollen skirt, fur cape, leather bowl, crooks and stones
The calibrated age range is 410-390 cal BC
Damendorf Ruchmoor Germany   Skirt
The primary material is
Description: 1909 find
around the 2-5th centuries
Cloaks
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
cloak #1
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
Cloak
The primary material is
Description: cloak #1
Associated object(s): a stick, two woollen cloaks, leg wrappings, a sleeved tunic, two leather belts and a leather knife sheath
AD 680-775
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
cloak #2
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
Cloak
The primary material is
Description: cloak #2
Associated object(s): a stick, two woollen cloaks, leg wrappings, a sleeved tunic, two leather belts and a leather knife sheath
AD 680-775
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
cloak #
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description: rectangular cloak, pieced, unclear if this is #1 or #2
Associated object(s): a stick, two woollen cloaks, leg wrappings, a sleeved tunic, two leather belts and a leather knife sheath
AD 680-775
Damendorf Ruchmoor Germany
Findspot: Ruchmoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf (1884)
(inv. No. KS 5949)
Associated objects: fur cape and remains of two woollen garments 385-355, 315-205 BC
Damendorf Ruchmoor Germany 1909 find Cloak
The primary material is fur
Description: 1909 find
around the 2-5th centuries
Damendorf Ruchmoor Germany
Findspot: Ruchmoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Girl (1934)
(inv. No. KS 22412)
Cloak
The primary material is fur
Description: 1934 find
Associated objects: short woollen skirt, fur cape, leather bowl, crooks and stones
The calibrated date is cal 895-810 BC
Damendorf Seemoor Germany
Findspot: Seemoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Man (1900)
(inv. No. KS 10924)
Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description:
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen breeches, two woollen leg wrappings, two leather belts, a pair of leather shoes
The calibrated age range is cal AD 135-335
Damendorf Seemoor Germany   Cloak
The primary material is
Description:
around the 2-5th centuries
Dätgen Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Da¨tgen (1906)
(inv. No. KS 11919)
Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description: woollen cloak
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen knee-length breeches and the remains of a woollen tunic and several other garments/accessories
AD 440-600
Hunteburg Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Diepholz
Garment A
Hunteburg Men (I and II) (1949)
(inv. No. 185:50)
Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description: Garment A
Associated objects: two woollen cloaks, small bunch of flowering heather
AD 260-275, 325-420
Hunteburg Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Diepholz
Garment B
Hunteburg Men (I and II) (1949)
(inv. No. 185:50)
The primary material is wool
Description: Garment B
Associated objects: two woollen cloaks, small bunch of flowering heather
AD 260-275, 325-420
Neddenaverbergen Germany   Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description:
around the 2-5th centuries
Obenaltendorf Germany
Findspot: Kehdinger Moor, Landkreis Cuxhaven
Oberaltendorf Man (1895)
(inv. No. 930)
Cloak
The primary material is
Description:
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a tunic, a pair of breeches, leg wrappings, shoes and two silver Kapselberlocks
AD 235-380
Rendsburg Germany   Cloak
The primary material is fur
Description:
around the 2-5th centuries
Rendsburg Germany   Cloak
The primary material is
Description:
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany 3688 Cloak
The primary material is
Description: total of 5 cloaks
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany 3686 Cloak
The primary material is
Description: total of 5 cloaks
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany   Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description: total of 5 cloaks
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany   Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description: total of 5 cloaks
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany   Cloak
The primary material is wool
Description: total of 5 cloaks
around the 2-5th centuries
Emsland Germany
Findspot: Bourtanger Moor, Landkreis Emsland
Neu-Versen Man/Roter Franz (1900)
(inv. No. 17351)
Associated object(s): woollen thread (and woollen cloak?) AD 135-385
The calibrated age range is cal AD 135-385.
Friesland Germany
Findspot: Ju¨hrdenerfeld (also known as Bockhornerfeld), Landkreis Friesland
Ju¨hrdenerfeld Man (1934)
(inv. No. 5936)
Associated objects: posts, woollen cloak, fur cape 40 BC-AD 75
The calibrated age range is cal 90-80 cal BC or 55
cal BC-cal AD 25.
Ammerland Germany
Findspot: Kayhausermoor, Landkreis Ammerland
Kayhausen Boy (1922)
(inv. No. 5935)
Associated objects: fur cape, textile 355-295, 255-115 BC
Germany, Schleswig-Holstein
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Plo¨n
Rendswu¨hren Man (1871)
(KS, without inv. No.; textile: KS 3352)
Associated objects: fur cape and woollen cloak The calibrated age range is cal AD 135-255 and 305-315.
Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde Germany
Findspot: Ko¨hlmoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Osterby Man (1948)
(KS without inv. No.)
Associated objects: fur cape The calibrated age range is cal AD 75-130
Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde Germany
Findspot: Domlandsmoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Windeby Girl (1952)
(inv. No. KS 22672)
Associated objects: woollen band, fur cape, pottery sherds, a stone, a branch and several twigs The calibrated age range is cal 150-135 and cal 115-0 BC
Dithmarschen Germany
Findspot: Ro¨ ster Moor, Landkreis Dithmarschen
Ro¨ st Girl (1926)
(inv. No. KS 15609)
Associated objects: woollen cloak The calibrated date is 200-95 cal BC.
Leg wear
Thorsberg Germany 3685 Trousers
The primary material is wool
Description: in poor condition
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany 3684 Trousers
The primary material is wool
Description: in good condition
around the 2-5th centuries
Marx-Etzel Germany
Findspot: Hilgenmoor, Landkreis Wittmund
Marx-Etzel (1817) Trousers
The primary material is wool
Description: short - knee-breeches
trousers are of inferior weave and cut, being made of one piece of cloth for each leg with and extra panel in the middle to widen them.
a pair of woollen knee-length breeches,
AD 140-395
Dätgen Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Da¨tgen (1906)
(inv. No. KS 11919)
Trousers
The primary material is wool
Description: pair of woollen knee-length breeches
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen knee-length breeches and the remains of a woollen tunic and several other garments/accessories
The calibrated age range is cal AD 135-385.
Dätgen Germany   Trousers
The primary material is wool
Description: evidently female
trousers are of inferior weave and cut, being made of one piece of cloth for each leg with and extra panel in the middle to widen them. had slits at the ankle
around the 2-5th centuries
Damendorf Seemoor Germany
Findspot: Seemoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Man (1900)
(inv. No. KS 10924)
Trousers
The primary material is wool
Description: woollen breeches
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen breeches, two woollen leg wrappings, two leather belts, a pair of leather shoes
AD 135-335
Damendorf Seemoor Germany
Findspot: Seemoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Man (1900)
(inv. No. KS 10924)
leg wrap
The primary material is wool
Description: two woollen leg wrappings
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen breeches, two woollen leg wrappings, two leather belts, a pair of leather shoes
AD 135-335
Obenaltendorf Germany
Findspot: Kehdinger Moor, Landkreis Cuxhaven
Oberaltendorf Man (1895)
(inv. No. 930)
leg wrap
The primary material is
Description:
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a tunic, a pair of breeches, leg wrappings, shoes and two silver Kapselberlocks
AD 235-380
Thorsberg Germany   leg wrap
The primary material is
Description: fragmentary
around the 2-5th centuries
Lauchheim / Ostalbkreis Germany Gräberfeld-Grab 974 leg wrap
The primary material is wool
Description: fragments of leg-wraps, with some embroidery
6th c. CE
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
leg wrap
The primary material is
Description:
AD 680-775
Footwear
Lauchheim / Ostalbkreis Germany Gräberfeld-Grab 974 Shoe
The primary material is leather
Description: hide-shoe with gathered toe
6th c. CE
Damendorf Seemoor Germany
Findspot: Seemoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Man (1900)
(inv. No. KS 10924)
shoe
The primary material is leather
Description: shoe
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen breeches, two woollen leg wrappings, two leather belts, a pair of leather shoes
AD 135-335
Marx-Etzel Germany
Findspot: Hilgenmoor, Landkreis Wittmund
Marx-Etzel (1817) Shoe
The primary material is leather
Description: leather shoe
AD 140-395
Obenaltendorf Germany
Findspot: Kehdinger Moor, Landkreis Cuxhaven
Oberaltendorf Man (1895)
(inv. No. 930)
Shoe
The primary material is
Description:
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a tunic, a pair of breeches, leg wrappings, shoes and two silver Kapselberlocks
AD 235-380
Oberflacht Germany   Shoe
The primary material is
Description: 2 items
around the 2-5th centuries
Thorsberg Germany   Shoe
The primary material is
Description
around the 2-5th centuries
Ardorf Germany   Shoe
The primary material is
Description
around the 2-5th centuries
Diepholz Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Diepholz
Hunteburg Foot (1938)
(inv. No. 1940:38)
Associated object(s): (left) shoe, leather, post The calibrated age range is cal AD 1215-1300.
Wittmund Germany
Findspot: Lengener Moor, Landkreis Wittmund
Bentstreek Foot (1955) Associated objects: leather shoe, textile The calibrated age range is cal AD 80-135, 160-170 and 195-210.
Headwear
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
Hat
The primary material is leather
Description: leather hat
3 piece hat
AD 680-775
Damendorf Seemoor Germany   Hat
The primary material is wool
Description: sprang hairnet
Woman's grave
2-5th centuries
Late Iron Age (e.g. Roman Empire, Migration Era)
Hallstadt, Dürrnberg Austria   Hat
The primary material is leather
Description: hemispherical cap
6-5th c. BCE
Early Iron Age
Hallstadt, salt mines Austria   Hat
The primary material is fur
Description: beret-style
The rim of the beret is interweaved with a leather lace to change the size. This cap is known from figurative chasing on sheet bronzes made in "situla style".
7-6th century BC 6-5th c. BCE
Early Iron Age
Hallstadt, salt mines Austria   Hat
The primary material is fur
Description: conical
The cap is sewed accurately of tanned hide; the hairy side of the conical cap was worn inside. Its form reminds of the so-called "Phrygian cap".
6-5th c. BCE
Early Iron Age
Horchdorf Germany Horchdorf Find Birch bark hat
conical hat made of birch bark and decorated with incised patterns
Hat (made of bark from birch tree)
diameter 34,5 cm; height 11 cm
ca. 570-580 B.C.
Hochdorf Germany   birch hat
This hat comes from the Hochdorf burial and has a diameter of 34.5 cm and a height of 11 cm. The burial dates to 300 BC
300 BC
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
  Hood
The primary material is
Description:
AD 680-775
Hedeby (Haithabu), Germany Heddeby Hood Hood with Small tail 9th-10th C
Other items
Damendorf Seemoor Germany
Findspot: Seemoor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Damendorf Man (1900)
(inv. No. KS 10924)
Belt
The primary material is leather
Description: belt
Associated objects: a woollen cloak, a pair of woollen breeches, two woollen leg wrappings, two leather belts, a pair of leather shoes
AD 135-335
Bernuthsfeld Germany
Findspot: Hogehahn Moor, Landkreis Aurich
Bernuthsfeld Man (1907)
(inv. No. 0952 097 072)
Belt
The primary material is leather
Description: two leather belts and a leather knife sheath
Associated object(s): a stick, two woollen cloaks, leg wrappings, a sleeved tunic, two leather belts and a leather knife sheath
AD 680-775
Hunteburg Germany
Findspot: Grossen Moor, Landkreis Diepholz
Hunteburg III (1949)
(inv. No. 185:50)
Associated objects: piece of animal skin (deer?) 40 BC-AD 75
Dithmarschen Germany
Findspot: Bunsoh, Landkreis Dithmarschen
Bunsoh (1890)
(KS without inv. No.)
Associated object(s): posts, woollen 'necklace' The calibrated age range is AD 560-620.
Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde Germany
Findspot: Grosses Moor, Landkreis Rendsburg-Eckernfo¨rde
Da¨tgen Man (1959/1960)
(inv. No. KS C410)
Associated objects: crooks, woollen thread AD 135-385

Thank you to the following people - For helping to case down, the details on some of the Hats & caps
Cherilyn Fuhlbohm - Antioch New Varangian Guard
Andrea Willett - Dubh Linn New Varangian Guard
Sandy Sempel - Frojel Gotlantica Viking Re-enactment Society
Prof Lena Strid - Waterford & Oxford Archaeology

Web References:

  • The Surviving Garments Database
  • Sewing Stitches Used in Medieval Clothing
  • Some Clothing of the Middle Ages
  • An Archaeological Guide to Víking Men's Clothing
  • Kelticos Forum on Iron Age Studies and Prehistoric Europe
  • Fashions of the Peat Bogs - Clothing Found from the Celtic Iron Age 400 BC-400 AD By Janet VanMeter
  • Extant originals
  • The Iron Age Family
  • Dating bog bodies by means of 14C-AMS by J. van der Plichta*, W.A.B. van der Sandenb, A.T. Aertsa, H.J. Streurmana
  • Book Reference:
    Thor Ewing 'Viking Clothing' Tempus Publishing 2006 ISBN 0 7524 3587 6
    Margrethe Hald, "Olddanske tekstiler". Det kongelige Nordiske Oldskriftsselskab, Nordisk Forlag 1950.

    Other good websites on Saxon clothing

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